Signed parental consent for any treatment is assumed to be valid if the parent understands the nature of the procedure and its associated risks and benefits.
However, proxy consent by parents is now being questioned.
Normal procedure for persons of Jewish faith in Finland is to have a locally certified mohel who works in Finnish healthcare perform the operation.
In the 2008 case, the infant was not anesthetized and developed complications that required immediate hospital care.
However, he forbade the circumcision of non-Jews that were either foreign-slaves or non-Jewish members of the household, contrary to Genesis He also made it illegal for a man to convert to Judaism.
Antoninus Pius exempted the Egyptian priesthood from the otherwise universal ban on circumcision.
It pointed out in its ruling that the circumcision of Muslim boys is an established tradition and an integral part of the identity of Muslim men".
They say there is "no compelling legal authority for the common view that circumcision is lawful." In 2005 a Muslim man had his son circumcised against the wishes of the child's mother who was the custodial parent.In several court cases, judges have pointed to the irreversible nature of the act, There are ancient religious requirements for circumcision.The Hebrew Bible commands Jews to circumcise their male children on the eighth day of life, and to circumcise their male slaves (Genesis –12). The ancient Greeks prized the foreskin and disapproved of the Jewish custom of circumcision.Cosmetic circumcision for newborn males is currently banned in all Australian public hospitals, South Australia being the last state to adopt the ban in 2007; the procedure was not forbidden from being performed in private hospitals.In 2009, the Tasmanian Law Reform Institute released its Issues Paper investigating the law relating to male circumcision in Tasmania, it "highlights the uncertainty in relation to whether doctors can legally perform circumcision on infant males".